How can we find the number of protons and electrons present in a neutral atom?
Grab a Periodic Table!
For example, carbon,
Now, a neutral atom will always have equal numbers of protons inside the nucleus and of electrons outside the nucleus.
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This implies that for neutral atoms, the atomic number, which gives you the number of protons located inside the nucleus, will also give you the number of electrons that surround the nucleus.
In carbon's case, a neutral carbon atom has
So, to figure out the number of protons and electrons present in a neutral atom, find the element in the Periodic Table and look for its atomic number.